[dns-operations] .fr has 5 DNSKEYs

Brett Frankenberger rbf+dns-operations at panix.com
Sat Jun 4 17:47:08 UTC 2011

On Sat, Jun 04, 2011 at 06:34:03PM +0200, Stephane Bortzmeyer wrote:
> On Wed, Jun 01, 2011 at 05:18:03PM +0100,
>  George Barwood <george.barwood at blueyonder.co.uk> wrote 
>  a message of 20 lines which said:
> > Fragmented UDP responses are especially vulnerable to spoofing,
> > because of the way IP fragmentation works. The DNS ID field (and UDP
> > source port) is only present in the first fragment, so by sending a
> > spoof non-first fragments an attacker that can predict the IP ID (
> > which might be possible depending on the underlying IP
> > implementation ) may be able to spoof a response
> I do not see how the attack works: spoofing the non-first fragments is
> useless since, if you cannot spoof the first one, the packet won't be
> reassembled and the DNS data won't be accepted by the name server.
> Do you have a pointer to a detailed description of this attack?

I don't have a pointer, and haven't really thought about it before this
thread.  But the potential attack would seem to be:

Without fragmentation:
  (a) Get server to send query for X
  (b) Send forged response ahead of the actual response.
  (c) Fail because you didn't guess the DNS ID field and UDP Source Port

With fragmentation:
  (a) Get server to send query for X
  (b) Send forged second fragment ahead of the actual response
  (c) Client receives first fragment from the actual response
  (d) Client reassembles the real first fragment and the forged second
      fragment.  Note that there's no need for the attacker to
      successfully predict the DNS ID or UDP Source Port because those
      are in the legitimate first fragment.  (UDP Checksum could be an
      issue, but that's not hard to work around if know know what the
      contents of the real second fragment will be -- you can construct
      your second fragment to have the same contribution to checksum as
      the real second fragment would have.)

     -- Brett

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